Up to 1933  Pre-Nazi times

1500 BCE        The Hebrews move to Egypt.

1250 BCE        Moses receives the Ten Commandments.

1000 BCE        Kings Saul, David and Solomon reign. Jerusalem becomes the
                capital of  the Israelite Kingdom. King Solomon’s Temple is
                constructed in Jerusalem.

700 BCE         Assyrians deport ten of the 12 tribes (the “ten lost

600 BCE         Babylonians conquer Jerusalem and destroy King Solomon’s


4th-2nd c. BCE   Greeks attempt to destroy Judaism and impose Hellenistic
                culture and religion on the Jews. Jews fight back (and now
                celebrate this with their festival of “Chanukah”).

3rd c. BCE       The first five books of the Jewish Scriptures (Pentateuch)
                are translated into Greek.

140 BCE         Judea and Rome are allies.

4 BCE - 30 CE   Approximate lifetime of Jesus of Nazareth. Pontius Pilate,
                Roman Governor of Judea, orders the execution of Jesus but
                was reluctant to do so, blaming the Jewish priestly hier-
                archy for his death.

66-70           When the Jews in Israel tried to revolt against the Roman
                occupation (which began in 63 BCE) the cost in lives was
                severe – both as a result of in­fighting and of the Roman
                counter attack. It is estimated that as many as one million
                Jews died in the fighting. During the summer of 70, the Romans
                breached the walls of Jerusalem and initiated an orgy of
                violence and destruction, culminating in the destruction
                of the Second Temple (the renovated Herod’s Temple).

313             Roman Emperor Constantine issues a decree that grants
                tolerance for all religions, including Christianity.

4th century     Jews begin to be discriminated against by the newly
                Christianised Romans.

4th-6th c.       Several church councils and dozens of Roman laws attack
                Judaism and Jews. Marriage between Christians and Jews
                is forbidden. Christians begin to attack Jews as “Christ

500-1000        Jews are spread
widely throughout Europe.

1069-1099       First Christian Crusaders massacre Jews in Europe and
                capture Jerusalem.

11th-13th c.     Numerous crusades and massacres of Jews. Plundering of
                Jewish homes and synagogues.

11th-15th c.     Medieval Jews experience a significant deterioration of
                their status in Europe. Jews viewed as ‘devil’s agents’.
                Rumours and myths begin about rapacious usury, murders of
                Christian children, and blood libel (drinking Christian


1171            In Blois, southwest of Paris, Jews are falsely accused of
                committing ritual murder. Adult Jews are arrested and most
                are executed after refusing to convert. Jewish children are
                forcibly baptised.

1215            The Church’s Fourth Lateran Council decrees that Jews are
                required to wear different clothing and sometimes a badge
                for identification.

1290            Jews are expelled from England.

1306            Philip IV expels all Jews from France and confiscates their

1348-9          A bubonic plague (
the “Black Death”) sweeps across Europe.
                Jews are accused as being scapegoats and many are executed.

1490            The Spanish Inquisition charges Jews with plotting against
                Christians. Thousands are condemned to death as heretics.

1492            Jews are expelled from Spain.

1516            Palestine comes under the control of the Ottoman Empire.

1542            Martin Luther, father of the Protestant Church, publishes
                the booklet “Jews and Their Lies”.

1648-9          A first wave of pogroms takes place in Poland and the
                Ukraine (under the Cossack leadership of Bogdan

1791            Under the French Revolution the National Constituent Assembly
                almost unanimously introduced legislation that ensured complete
                integration of Jewish citizens.

1803            Under Napoleon all Jews in occupied German territories were
                likewise treated as fully integrated citizens.

1807 to 1814    The liberal Stein-Hardenberg reforms recognised the integration
                of Jewish people within the population of Prussia.

1848-9          In the course of revolutions in Germany in 1848 a National
                Assembly was formed which developed the first constitution
                for a united Germany at its meetings in the Frankfurt Pauls-
. Jews were accepted with full rights. However, when
                Austria and Prussia withdrew from the union, the constitution
                never took effect.

1871            The German Empire (Deutsches Reich), consisting of 26 constituent
                territories, was formed with the Kingdom of Prussia containing most
                of the population and making up most of the territory of the Empire.
                German Jews received full rights. It lasted until 1918 when it became
                a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of
                Emperor William II.

1878            Adolf Stoecker founded the antisemitic Lutheran Christian Social
                political party
which never gained mass support but which provided
                Stoecker with a platform for his anitsemitic propaganda.

1880            250,000 people sign a petition demanding that Jews be banned from
                schools and universities.

1880’s          Large-scale pogroms break out across Russia. Jews emigrate
                in large numbers.

1883            Sir Francis Galton coins the term “eugenics”, the notion of
                positive modification of natural selection through selec-
                tive breeding of human beings.

1894            French Army Officer Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew, is falsely
                accused and convicted of treason, sparking a wave of
                antisemitism. He is ultimately found to be innocent and

1895            Alfred Ploetz postulates the theory of racial hygiene
                (race-based eugenics) in his "Racial Hygiene Basics"
                (Grundlinien einer Rassenhygiene) and later, in 1933,
                welcomes the Nazi seizure of power (being made a professor
                by Hitler in 1936 and joining the Nazi party in 1937).

Houston Stewart Chamberlain publishes “Foundations of the
                19th Century”, claiming that human history is a battle
                between Jews and Aryans.

1903            The National Democratic Party is established in
                Poland. One of its goals is to exclude Jews from Polish
                social and economic life and ultimately to push them to

1903-6          A second wave of pogroms spreads across Poland and the

1905            When the Russians were defeated in a war against Japan,
                revolts against the Tsar took place and in Yekaterinoslav,
                Ukraine, tens of Jewish children were massacred during a

1905            Revised versions of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion are
                published in Russia.

1917            The Balfour Declaration promises British support for the
                establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. It contra-
                dicts the earlier McMahon-Faisal agreement which promised

                the same territory to the Arabs.

1918            The antisemitic ‘Schutz und Trutz Bund’ group is established
                in Germany; Sin against blood, an antisemitic
novel by Artur
                Dinter, is published.

1918 to 1920    100,000 Jews are murdered in western Ukraine.

1918 to 1933    Antisemitic policies in Poland prompt 60,000 Polish Jews to
                emigrate to Germany.

1919            Germany adopts a democratic constitution; laws restricting
                the movement and settlement of Roma and Sinti are passed.
                A German version of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion is

1920            The first mass meeting of the Nazi National Socialist Party
                (NSDAP) takes place in Munich’s Hofbräu-Haus
. One year later
                Adolf Hitler becomes chairman.

1921            The NSDAP establishes the SA Storm Troopers (paramilitary

                units called Sturmabteilungen).

1921            Adolf Hitler becomes chairman of the NSDAP.

1923            The rampantly antisemitic newspaper Der Sturmer is

                established in Nuremberg; its slogan is “The Jews are our

1925            The “SS” (Schutzstaffel) is established as a further

                paramilitary unit with strict loyalty to Hitler.

            Rev Gerald Winrod founds Defenders Of The Christian Faith,
                an antisemitic group that attacks “Jewish Bolshevism” and
                opposes teaching evolution in public schools.

1925            Hitler’s Mein Kampf ("My Struggle") is published.

1927            Jewish cemeteries throughout Germany are desecrated by Nazi

1928            The Nazis win 2.6 % of the national vote and gain 12 seats
                in the Reichstag

1929            Hitler appoints Heinrich Himmler as head of the SS.

1929            A Nazi party rally at Nuremberg draws over 100,000 people.

1930            The Nazi party wins 18 % of the vote in the general election
                and gains 107 seats in the Reichstag, making it the second
                largest political party.

Sept 12, 1931   On the eve of the Jewish New Year (Rosh Hashanah) Nazis
                attack Jews in Berlin.

July 31, 1932   The Nazi party receives 37 % of the vote in the general
                election and wins 230 seats in the Reichstag (out of 608).

1932            The Nazi party establishes the Faith Movement of German
, intended to encourage German nationalism and
                undercut the authority of the Protestant Church.

1933 to 1945: Nazi State


Jan 30, 1933    After failure by appointee Kurt Von Schleicher to appoint a
                coalition government, Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor by
                President Paul Von Hindenburg. Soon after, arrests for
                (criticism of the government) increase.

1933            The famous physicist and philosopher Albert Einstein, a German
                Jew, emigrates to the United States.

Feb 2, 1933     Political demonstrations are banned.

Feb 20, 1933    Hitler gains support from a group of leading German  industri-
                alists at a meeting called by Hermann Göring. They pledge three
                million Reichmarks towards the general election being held two
                weeks later.

Feb 27, 1933    The Parliament buildings (Reichstag) are set ablaze. The Nazis
                blame the communists and use the fire as an excuse to arrest
                and imprison thousands of political opponents.

March 1933      Martial Law declared. Thousands of people disappear.

March 5, 1933   The Nazis win 288 out of 647 (43.9%) seats in a general election
                held after many of their opponents had already been killed or
                imprisoned. All German states are stripped of their powers.

March 21, 1933  Special Nazi courts are set up to deal with dissidents.

March 22, 1933  The first concentration camp is established: in Dachau, near

March 23, 1933  The “Enabling Act” is passed, giving the government dictatorial

April 11, 1933  The government imposes employment sanctions against Jews.

April 21, 1933  The government prohibits the practice of ritual Jewish slaughter
                of mammals and birds according to Jewish dietary laws (shechita).

April 26, 1933  The Gestapo (secret police) is established.

May 10, 1933    Books deemed “un-German” are burned in Berlin. 20,000 mostly
                Jewish volumes are destroyed.

June 1, 1933    The government passes the Unemployment Reduction Act to provide
                marriage loans and other incentives for genetically “fit“

June 1933       Hitler outlaws all political parties other than the Nazi Party.

July 14, 1933   A decree is passed that declares the Nazi Party to be the sole
                political party within Germany. Also, a law is passed that
                stripped Jewish immigrants from Poland of their German
                citizenship (the Law Regarding Revocation of Naturalisation
                and the Annulment of German Citizenship).

July 14, 1933   A law is passed to provide for the sterilisation of ‘unfit’
                parents and potential parents as well as to allow euthanasia of
                the defective and “useless mouths to feed” (Law of Prevention
                of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases). The law is endorsed by
                the American Eugenics society.

July 20, 1933   The Vatican helps legitimise the Nazi regime by signing an
                accord with Hitler.

Aug 25, 1933    The controversial Haavara agreement was signed to facilitate the
                emigration of German Jews to Palestine.

Sept 22, 1933   Jews are banned from the fields of journalism, art, literature,
                music, broadcasting, and theater.

Sept 29, 1933   Jews are banned from farming and owning land.

Oct 4, 1933     Jews are banned from being newspaper editors.

Oct 21, 1933    Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.

Nov 24, 1933    The compulsory castration of “hereditary” criminals is legalised.

Nov 27, 1933    The state-controlled leisure organisation Kraft durch Freude
                (Strength through Joy) is established to promote tourism
                amongst the workers in accordance with the aims of the Nazi

1933            The German News Bureau (DNB or Deutsches Nachrichtenbüro) is
                established to feed propaganda to the German press.

1933 to 1939    Over 1400 anti-Jewish laws are passed.


Jan 1, 1934     The government removes Jewish holidays from the national

April 1934      The Volksgerichtshof (People’s Court) is established to deal
                with enemies of the state. There is no trial by jury and no
                right of appeal.

May 17, 1934    Thousands attend a pro-Nazi rally in New York’s Madison

June 30, 1934   In what was later called the “Night of the Long Knives”
                hundreds of actual and presumed opponents of the Hitler
                regime are
arrested and executed.

Aug 2, 1934     German President Paul Von Hindenburg dies. Hitler combines the
                offices of President and Chancellor and declares himself Führer
                of the German state and commander-in-chief of Germany’s Armed
                Forces. Members of the armed forces must take a personal oath

                of allegiance to him.

Aug 19, 1934    In a plebiscite Hitler receives a 90 percent 'yes' vote
                approving his new powers.


1935            Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens)
                propaganda film documentary about the 1934 Nazi party Congress
                in Nuremberg is released. The overriding theme of the film is
                the return of Germany as a great power, with Hitler as the

                True German Leader who will bring glory to the nation.

1935            The first edition of the Journal for Racial Science (Zeitschrift
                für Rassenkunde
) is published.

1935            An American pro-Nazi political group called the Silver Shirts
                (the Silver Legion of America) merges with the Christian

March 1, 1935   Germany retakes the Saarland.

March 16, 1935  Germany initiates military conscription in blatant defiance of
                the Versailles Treaty. France, England, and  the United States
                do nothing.

April 30, 1935  Jews may no longer display the German flag.

May 12, 1935    Polish dictator Jozef Pilsudski dies. Antisemitism in Poland
                increases sharply.

May 31, 1935    Jews banned from Germany’s Armed Forces.

July 1, 1935    The antisemitic Society for Research into the Teaching of
                Ancestral Heritage (Ahnenerbe Forschungs- und Lehrgemeinschaft)
                is founded to study the racial history of the German people.

Aug 25, 1935    Leading Protestant anti-Nazi Pastor Martin Niemöller preaches
                that Jewish people are forever under a curse because of their
                responsibility for Christ’s death and are also responsible for
                the “blood of all righteous men who were ever murdered”.

Sept 15, 1935   The antisemitic “Nuremberg Laws” are passed as the basis for the
                exclusion of Jews (as well as Gypsies and black people) from all
                public business life and for the removal of all their political
                rights. Mixed marriages between Jews and non-Jews are forbidden.

Sept 15, 1935   The Reich Flag Law defines the official flag of Germany as a
                black swastika in a white circle on a red field.

Nov 14, 1935    The National Law of Citizenship is passed, denying voting rights
                for Jews and prohibiting them from holding public office.  For
                the first time a definition of a Jew within German law is

Nov 15, 1935    In accordance with the new definition of Jew, German churches
                cooperate with the government by supplying the Nazis with lists
                of known Jews.

1935 to 1938    Poland models its policies regarding Jews on those of Nazi


March 3, 1936   Jewish doctors are denied the right to practice.

March 7, 1936   In defiance of the Versailles Treaty and other international
                agreements, German troops occupy the Rhineland. Once again
                France, Great Britain and the United States do nothing.

March 29, 1936  SS  guard formations are renamed SS-Totenkopfverbände (death’s
                head units). They provide guards for the concentration camps.

April 1936      French conservatives condemn French Socialist leader Léon Blum

                because of his Jewish origins and his strong anti-Nazi

August 1936     Poland’s Ministry of Commerce orders all small businesses to
                display the owners’ full names on their signs with the intention
                of exposing Jewish ownership.

Aug 1-16, 1936  Summer Olympic Games. The Nazis make every effort to portray
                Germany as a respectable member of the international community
                and soft-pedal their persecution of the Jews. They removed
                anti-Jewish signs from public display, restrained anti-Jewish
                activities, and allowed Jews on their Olympic team. Avery
                Brundage, head of the United States National Olympic Committee,
                prevents an American boycott of the Olympics, insisting that the
                boycott lobby is led by Jewish “special interests”. Once in
                Germany, Brundage is entertained by top Nazi official Hermann

Sept 7, 1936    An asset tax of 25 % is imposed on all Jewish assets.

Oct 1, 1936     Criminal-court judges swear a mandatory oath of allegiance to

Oct 25, 1936    Hitler and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini sign a treaty
                forming the Berlin-Rome Axis in preparation for war.

Nov 18, 1936    Germany’s volunteer Condor Legion goes to the assistance of
                General Franco Fascists in the Spanish Civil War.

Nov 27, 1936    Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels bans film criticism,
                clearing the way for the Nazi-controlled film industry to
                pursue its own brand of antisemitism.


1937           At a party rally in Nuremberg Hitler declares that the Reich
               will last a thousand years.

Jan 26, 1937   Jews are excluded from clerical employment.

Sept 7, 1937   Hitler declares the Treaty of Versailles invalid and expired.

Oct 12, 1937   The SS assumes control of a crippled children’s institution
               in Württemberg (at Grafeneck) and begins the facility’s trans-
               transformation into a “euthanasia” center.

Nov 3, 1937    The Danzig Senate isolates Jewish merchants and confiscates
               their bank assets, charging them with tax evasion.


Jan 1938       The Dachau concentration camp is enlarged.

Jan 21, 1938   The Romanian government strips many Jews of their citizenship.

Feb 4, 1938    Austrian Nazis prepare to take over all Jewish businesses.

March 12, 1938 The German army enters Vienna. Austria is annexed (the Anschluß)
               and Germany’s antisemitic laws are immediately applied.

April 5, 1938  Anti-Jewish riots spread across Poland.

April 23, 1938 Jews in Vienna are rounded up and forced to eat grass at the
               Prater, the central amusement park.

April 26, 1938 “Aryanisation” of Jewish property begins: All real estate and all
               assets over 5000 Marks must be registered, preparatory to later

May 29, 1938   Hungary restricts the number of Jews with government jobs to 20%.

June 9, 1938   Nazis destroy the Munich Synagogue, burning it to the ground.

June 15, 1938  Jews with a previous conviction (even if for a traffic violation)
               are arrested and placed in concentration camps.

July 6, 1938   38 countries meet at the Evian Conference to discuss what to do
               with Jewish refugees. All agree to restrict entry rights for Jews,
               prompting German newspapers to report: “Jews for sale at a bargain
               price. Who wants them? No one.”

July 30, 1938  American industrialist Henry Ford, a leading antisemite, accepts
               the Third Reich’s German Eagle medal. A year later, at the
               outbreak of war, Ford will claim that the “Jew bankers” are
               responsible for the war.

Aug 17, 1938   Jewish men are forced to adopt the additional name of Israel and
               Jewish women are forced to adopt the additional name of Sara.

Nov 7, 1938    The Third Secretary of Legation (Ernst vom Rath) at the German
               Embassy in Paris is mortally wounded by a young Jewish man
               Herschel Grynszpan in retaliation for his parents being deported
               to Zbaszyn. The Nazis use this as a pretext to launch a
               long-planned terror campaign against Jews in Austria and Germany.

Kristallnacht: Nazis destroy shops and burn down synagogues all over Germany and Austria
Nov 9, 1938    In the “Night of the Broken Glass”                                (Reichskristallnacht) planned violence against the Jews                takes place. 267 synagogues are desecrated; Jewish                     businesses and shops are looted and destroyed; 91 Jews                are killed; many are beaten and injured; and 31,000 men                are arrested and placed into concentration camps.


Nov 12, 1938   Göring charges the Jewish community one billion marks                (“atonement payment”) to cover the destruction wrought                by the Nazis during the Reichskristallnacht.

Nov 12, 1938   The Nazis decide to exclude Jews from economy, society, and


Nov 15, 1938   Jewish children are expelled from schools and only allowed to

               attend  specific Jewish schools.

Nov 24, 1938   British Conservative Party leader
Winston Churchill decides that
               Palestine is not an option for Jewish refugees.


1938 to 1939   British Government allows 10,000 unaccompanied Jewish children into
               Britain in a programme that became known as the Kindertransport action.
               Most of these children would never see their parents again. The first
               trans­port left Berlin on 1st December 1938; the last on 1st September 1939.

Feb 21, 1939   Jews are required to surrender all their gold and silver.

Feb-Jun, 1939  The Wagner-Rogers Bill, an attempt by two US politicians,
               to permit the immigration of 20,000 German Jewish children
               fails to pass congress because of the anti-Semitism rife in
               the American public and the lack of support from President
               Franklin Roosevelt.

Mar 31, 1939   Britain announces it will guarantee Poland’s sovereignty.

May 15, 1939   Women’s concentration camp opens at Ravensbruck, with 900 women
               prisoners being transferred there from Lichtenburg.

Aug 22, 1939   In a speech Hitler urges his generals to liquidate the Poles
               in the forthcoming war in order to gain Lebensraum (living space)
               for the German people.

Aug 23, 1939   Hitler signs the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, a temporary armistice
               with Stalin designed to buy time. The pact divides Poland and
               other parts of Eastern Europe between Germany and the Soviet Union,
               the division being along the Curzon line which was the original
               demarcation line between Russia and Poland in the wake of the
               First World War, named after the British Foreign Secretary George

Sept 1, 1939   German forces attack western Poland, triggering World War II.
               3000 Jews killed in Warsaw, 5000 trapped in Danzig.

Sept 1, 1939   Curfew imposed on Jews: 8 pm in winter and 9 pm in summer.

Sept 3, 1939   Great Britain and France declare war on Germany (also
               New Zealand and Australia).

Sept 17, 1939  Eastern Poland invaded by the Soviet Union.

Sept 21, 1939  Security Service chief Reinhard Heydrich orders the chiefs of
               the Einsatzgruppen to establish Jewish ghettos in German-occupied
                  Poland. He decrees that all smaller Jewish communities be
               dissolved and that their inhabitants be placed in urban ghettos
               or concentration camps.

Sept 27, 1939  Warsaw surrenders to the German troops.

Sept 28, 1939  Poland surrenders and the country is partitioned between the
               Soviets and the Germans. More than 2 million Jews live in the
               German-controlled area, 1.3 million in the Soviet-controlled

Oct, 1939      Hitler authorises euthanasia killings of the incurably ill
               and undesirable, the killings being able to be undertaken by
               selected physicians without the necessity of obtaining legal

Oct 10, 1939   The Germans establish a Generalgouvernement or administrative
               zone in Poland. This is where the death camps will later be

Oct 30, 1939   SS-chief Heinrich Himmler designates the three months to January
               1940 as the period during which all Jews must be cleared from the
               rural areas of western Poland.

Nov 7, 1939    The Nazis begin mass deportations of Jews from western Poland.

Nov 15, 1939   The Nazis destroy all of the synagogues in Lódz, Poland.

Nov 23, 1939   Polish Jews are ordered to wear white armbands with a blue
                  Star of David whenever appearing in public.

Nov 29, 1939   SS-chief Heinrich Himmler orders the death penalty for all
               German Jews who refuse to report for deportation.

Dec 1, 1939    1350 Jews are murdered by German troops at Chelm, Poland.

Dec 12, 1939   All Jewish males between the ages of 14 and 60 in Poland
               are forced to perform two years of labour.


Jan 12, 1940   The Gestapo and SS shoot 300 inmates of a Polish mental asylum
               at Hordyszcze.

Mar/Apr 1940   First deportations of gypsies begin.

April 1, 1940  Shanghai accepts thousands of Jewish refugees.

April 30, 1940 The Nazis seal off the ghetto in Lódz, shutting in 230,000 Jews.

May 10, 1940   German forces invade Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France.
               In Britain Chamberlain resigns and Churchill becomes Prime

May 20, 1940   The Auschwitz concentration camp (outside of the Polish city of
               Oswiecim) begins operations. Because most European Jewry lives
               in Poland, the six most notorious death camps will all be located
               there: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Chelmno, Belzec, Treblinka, Maidanek,
               and Sobibór.

June 22, 1940  France surrenders after 17 days of fighting.

June 26, 1940  United States Assistant Secretary of State Breckinridge Long
               prevents the granting of visas to Jews seeking entry into the
               United States by indefinitely delaying and effectively stopping
               immigration. All American consuls are instructed “to put every
               obstacle in the way [to] postpone and postpone and postpone the
               granting of visas”.

Oct 12, 1940   On Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), the holiest day of the Jewish
               calendar, German loudspeakers in Warsaw broadcast announcements,
               ordering all Jews to move into the newly established ghetto by
               the end of the month.

Nov 15, 1940   The Warsaw ghetto is hermetically sealed off. More than 350,000
               Jews, about 30 percent of the city’s population, are squeezed
               into about 2 percent of the city’s area.


January, 1941  Jews freeze to death
in the Warsaw ghetto because of lack of

Jan 10, 1941   Jews in the Netherlands have to register with the German

Feb 25, 1941   Tens of thousands of Dutch citizens participate in a general
               strike to protest
against the deportation of Jews from their
               country, the only such event in all of Europe.

March 3, 1941  A ghetto is established in Krakow.

Spring 1941    In Subotica, Yugoslavia, German troops execute 250 members of a
               Jewish youth group engaged in acts of sabotage.

May 1941       The first Croatian concentration camp is set up at the Danica
               factory in the village of Drinja, near Koprivnica. Later four
               further prison camps are opened: at Loborgrad, Jadovna, Stara
               Gradiska, and Djakovo. Within three months all inmates at Danica
               and within four months all inmates at Jadovna had been killed.

April 12, 1941 German troops enter Belgrade, Serbia
. A Jewish tailor who spits
               on the arriving troops is shot dead. Jewish shops and homes are

April 30, 1941 The local government at Zagreb, Croatia enacts racial legislation.

May 14, 1941   4000 Jews are deported from Paris, most of them to Pithiviers
               in north-central France.

May 22, 1941   Jews in Croatia are forced to wear identifying yellow badges.

June 22, 1941  In “Operation Barbarossa” Germany attacks the Soviet Union,
               breaking the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939. Special
               mobile killing squads (
Einsatzgruppen) kill Jews and civilians on
               the spot wherever they find them. In the Soviet village of
               Virbalis (in Lithuania, just across the border) they machine-gun
               all adult Jews. Children are grabbed by the ankles and their
               heads smashed against walls.

June 25, 1941  After the German invasion of the Soviet Union but even before the
               city of Kowno (Kaunas), Lithuania, was occupied, Lithuanian Fascists
               undertook large-scale anti-Jewish pogroms, particularly in the suburb
               of Slobodka (Vilijampole). More than 1000 Jews were killed; about 10,000
               Jews in various parts of the city were arrested and taken to the Seventh
               Fort, a part of the old fortress, where between 6,000 and 7,000 of them
               were murdered in the first week of July.

June 26, 1941  Hundreds of Jews from Kovno, Lithuania, are executed at one of
               the tsarist fortifications surrounding the city. An estimated
               40,000, are killed between the fall of 1941
and the spring of

from June 1941 Jews played an important part of the Soviet military effort.
               Their role in the front lines was disproportionately higher
               than that of other national groups. When Jews fell into enemy
               hands, they were generally shot immediately. In contrast,
               captured non-Jews were placed in internment camps where they
               often succumbed to hunger, exhaustion, disease, or execution.

June-Nov 1941  14,000 Bosnian Jews are deported.

July 1, 1941   Over a period of two months members of the
Einsatzgruppen, the
               Wehrmacht (army), and Esalon Special, a Romanian unit, kill over
               150,000 Jews in Bessarabia (Eastern Romania).

July 1941      In Ukraine over 2500 Jews are slaughtered in Zhitomir; 5000 in
               Ternopil; and 2000 from Lutsk in the Lubard Fortress (4th July).

July 8, 1941   Jews in the Baltic states are forced to wear an identifying
               badge. Within months most will have been murdered.

July 11, 1941  An order was issue that all remaining Jews in Kowno (Kaunas),
               Lithuania, were required to move into a ghetto at Slobodka by
               15th August. Then on 7th August 1200 Jewish men were picked up
               in the streets and about 1000 of them were killed. In these pogroms
               Lithuanian Fascists again took a very active part.

July 20, 1941  A ghetto is established in Minsk, Belorussia.

July 22, 1941  France’s Vichy government begins the expropriation of Jewish
               businesses and assets.

Aug 1, 1941    A ghetto is established in Bialystok, Poland.

Aug 8, 1941    Thousands of Jews from
Dvinsk, Latvia are taken to the Pogulanka
               Forest and murdered.

Aug 15, 1941   The Nazi commissioner for Eastern Europe decrees that Jews must
               wear two yellow stars: one on their chests and one on their

Aug 20, 1941   The first 4,300 of 70,000 Jews are sent from Paris to Drancy and
               from there to Auschwitz for extermination.

Aug 27, 1941   25,000 Hungarian Jews are exploited for labour and then executed
               in Ukraine.

Sept 1941      The Nazis open an antisemitic exhibition in Paris called “The
               Jews and France”. Visitors see sculptures and paintings of
               hideous mythical Jews, Jews allegedly cursed to wander the world
               forever because of their supposed attack on Jesus Christ, and
               Jews allegedly out to control the world. Parisians flock to visit
               the exhibition.

Sept 1, 1941   Because of Christian-German protest Hitler officially suspends
               the “euthanasia” program but allows it to continue unofficially.

Sept 1, 1941   Jews in Slovakia, Bohemia, and Moravia are required to wear the
               yellow identifying badges and forced to give up their business

Sep-Dec 1941   In Ukraine 18,000 Jews are killed in Berdichev; 33,780 in a
               ravine at Babi Yar; 11,000 in pits outside Stanislawow; 20,000
               in Dnepropetrtovsk; 46,000 in Odessa; and 14,000 in Simferopol.

Sep-Dec 1941   In Lithuania 33,500 Jews are killed in Vilna and 10,700 in Kovno.

Sep-Dec 1941   In Latvia 35,600 Jews from Riga are killed in nearby Rumbula
               Forest and 5,000 in Pogulanska.

Sep-Dec 1941   In Belorussia 12,000 Jews are killed in Minsk; 16,000 in
               Vitekbsk; and 9000 from Slonin in Czepielow.

Sep-Dec 1941   15,000 Jews in Sajmiste, Yugoslavia are killed in gas vans.

Dec 7, 1941    The Nazis begin killing Jews in gas vans
at Chelmno, Poland. By
               April 1943, 360,000 Jews were murdered there.



Jan 1942       Mass executions using Zyklon B gas commence at Auschwitz.

Jan 5, 1941    The Kharkov ghetto in Ukraine is liquidated.

Jan 20, 1942   At the Wannsee Conference, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee,
               plans for the ‘Final Solution’ (Endlösung), the total destruction
               of Europe’s Jewry, are made. According to the protocol of the
               meeting, five million Jews in the USSR are marked for death
               (including nearly three million in Ukraine), 700,000 in the
               Unoccupied Zone of France, 5600 in Denmark, and 200 in Albania.
               Figures also are given for nations not yet under Nazi control,
               including England (330,000), Spain (6000), Switzerland (18,000),
               Sweden (18,000), and Turkey (55,500). The meeting takes less
               than 90 minutes.

Feb 22, 1942   10,000 Jews are deported from the Lodz Ghetto (Poland) to Chelmno
               and gassed. A month later 24,000 more suffer the same fate.

March 1942     Nearly 5000 Jews starve in the Warsaw ghetto.

March 5, 1942  The British War Cabinet reaffirms its decision to refuse Jewish
               refugees entry into Palestine.

March 19, 1942 Extermination operations begin at the Belzec death camp.

March 1942     Over the next three months 59,000 Polish Jews are gassed at
               Sobibor; 15,000 killed at Slonim, Belorussia; and 30,000 from
               Lublin, Poland at Belzec.

March 1942     Over the next six months 60,000 Slovakian Jews are sent to death
               camps and killed.

April 16, 1942 SS officials report that Ukraine is free of Jews (“judenrein”).

April 1942     Jews are prohibited from taking public transport.

May 27, 1942   Belgian Jews are required to wear the Yellow Star.

May 29, 1942   Vichy France forbids Jews access to all restaurants, cafés,
               libraries, sports grounds, and other public places.

Jun 30, 1942   A second gas chamber installed at Auschwitz commences operation.

July 1942      All Jewish orphans in Paderborn, Germany, are sent to their death
               at Theresienstadt.

July 1942      Thousands of Dutch Jews are deported to Auschwitz.

Jul-Dec, 1942  7000 Jews are murdered at Lvov, Ukraine; thousands rounded up and
               executed on the streets of Rovno, Ukraine; 30,000 killed in
               Minsk, Belorussia; 150,000 at Belzec in August alone; 368,000
               from the Warsaw ghetto in Treblinka; 3500 from Minsk also in
               Treblinka; 10,000 from Wielun, Poland, in Chelmno; 10,000 from
               Siedlce, Poland, in Treblinka; 14,000 machine-gunned into gravel
               pits in Piatydni, Ukraine; 40,000 from the Czestochowa ghetto,
               Poland, in Treblinka.

August 1942    5600 Jews from Belgium are sent to Auschwitz.

August  1942   Jewish communities throughout Eastern Europe are liquidated,
               including those at Mir in Belrussia, Gorodok in Ukraine, and
               Ozorkow in Poland.

Aug 27, 1942   All 6,000 Jews on a train to Treblinka suffocate to death.

Sept 1, 1942   Security forces raid five hospitals in the Lódz ghetto,
               slaughtering patients and throwing babies out of windows,
               even bayoneting some before they hit the ground.

Sept 6, 1942   Over the following two weeks 48,000 Jews from Warsaw are deported
               to the Treblinka death camp.

Nov 1, 1942    Over 170,000 Jews are killed within one week at the death
               camps in Belzec, Auschwitz, and Treblinka.

Nov 27, 1942   During the following eight months over 110,000 people in the
               East of Poland are evicted to make room for ethnic Germans.

Dec 1942       1000 Roma and Sinti in Lithuania are locked inside a synagogue
               until they starve to death.

Dec 6, 1942    In Stary Ciepielow, Poland, 23 people are locked into a barn
               and burned to death on the suspicion of having helped some Jews.


Jan 18, 1943   1087 Jews from Belgium are gassed on arrival at Auschwitz.

Jan 18, 1943   1000 Jews are executed on the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto while
               6000 others are deported to Treblinka.

Feb 6, 1943    A typical report of items taken from Jews at Auschwitz records
               155,000 women’s coats, 132,000 men’s shirts, and over 6600 pounds
               of female hair.

March 17, 1943 Over 1200 Jews from Lvov, Poland, are killed at Piaski in
               "retribution" for the killing of an SS trooper.

March 21, 1943 During the Jewish festival of Purim 2300 Jews from Skopje,
               Yugoslavia, are deported to Auschwitz.

March 22, 1943 4000 French Jews are deported from Marseilles to Sobibor via

Spring 1943    Jewish prisoners are forced to burn the bodies of 600,000 others
               at Belzec.

April 19, 1943 The Warsaw ghetto uprising starts. Germans invade the ghetto
               and set it on fire but it takes them a full month to destroy it.

May 4-25, 1943 8000 Dutch Jews are sent to Auschwitz and Sobibor.

May 1943       7000 Jews are killed in Novogrudok, Belorussia; nearly all
               residents of Szarajowka, a Polish farming village, are shot
               or burned alive; members of the Jewish community at Drogobych,
               Ukraine, are killed in the Bronica Forest; 3000 Jews are killed
               in Tolstoye, Ukraine.

July 27, 1943  17 Jews discovered hiding in the rubble of the Warsaw ghetto are
               discovered and killed.

Aug 16, 1943   Nazi troops enter the Bialystok ghetto and liquidate it. Hundreds
resist with crude arms. 25,000 are killed.

Sept 20, 1943  1000 Jews from the Szebnie camp in Poland are machine-gunned
               in a nearby field and their corpses burned and dumped in the
               Jasiolka River.

Sept 1943      Over the next six months Jewish slave labourers exhume at least
               68,000 corpses (Jews and Soviet prisoners of war) at Ponary in

Nov 4, 1943    The SS put down a prisoner rebellion in Szebnie and close the
               camp, sending the remaining 3000 or 4000 Jews to Auschwitz.

Nov, 1943      Deportation of Jews from Italy begins.

Dec 13, 1943   In Greece the Nazis murder all males over 14 in the village of


March 1944     Evacuation of the concentration camps in the East begins as
               Russian forces advance. Orders are that documents be destroyed
               and evidence of corpses be removed.

March 7, 1944  3800 Czech Jews are gassed at Auschwitz. Eleven pairs of twins
               are spared for experiments by the SS doctor Josef Mengele.

March 19, 1944 Hungary and its 725,000 Jews come under direct German control.
               200 Jewish doctors and lawyers selected at random from the
               telephone book are sent to their death in Mauthausen.

March 23, 1944 6,500 Jews from Greece are deported to Auschwitz.

April 6, 1944  The Gestapo searches the children’s home at Izieu, France, and
               sends ten nurses and 43 Jewish children via Drancy to Auschwitz.

April 29, 1944 Deportation of Jews from Hungary begins with 33,000 from Munkacs
               being sent to Auschwitz and gassed.

June 6, 1944   Allied forces landed in Normandy (“D-Day”), the late entry of the
               United States into the war doubtless having delayed the liberation
               of concentration camps and the end to the killing of Jews and other
               prisoners even though the US did provide some support to the invading
               Soviet troops from the East.

June 6, 1944   All 1800 Jews of Corfu are deported to Auschwitz; 1600 are gassed
               on arrival, the other 200 assigned to forced labour.

June 7, 1944   Within 23 days almost 290,000 Hungarian Jews have been killed.

June 10, 1944  An SS unit destroys the French village of Oradour-sur-Glane for
               no apparent reason, killing 642 men, women, and children.

June 28, 1944  All prisoners at the Maly Trostenets concentration camp near
               Minsk in Belorussia are killed when the camp is bombed in order
               to remove evidence of the crimes committed there. But the Soviets
               are said to have discovered 34 grave-pits, some measuring as much
               as 50 meters in length and 3 to 4 meters in depth.

July 8, 1944   About 2000 Jews are burned to death or shot while trying to
               escape when the Kovno Ghetto is razed to the ground with dyanmite
               and grenades.

July 20, 1944  A military plot to kill Hitler fails.

July 20, 1944  Deportation of Jews from Rhodes and Kos begins.

July 29, 1944  3520 Jews are forced on a march westwards from Warsaw as the
               Russians advance.

Aug 2, 1944    2897 Sinti and Roma are murdered at Auschwitz.

Aug 4, 1944    15-year old Dutch Jew Anne Frank was arrested after spending over
               two years in hiding in Amsterdam. She and the other seven people
                 in hiding with her are sent to various concentration camps.

August 1944    At least 60,000 Jews from the Lodz Ghetto are sent to Auschwitz.

Nov 1944       12,000 Jews from the Stutthof concentration camp are sent on a 
               death march.



Jan-Mar 1945   2163 Spanish Republicans who fought against the Fascists in the
               Spanish Civil War are worked to death or murdered outright at the
               Mauthausen concentration camp.

Jan 11, 1945   Hungarian Fascists torture and kill 92 patients, doctors, and
               nurses in the Budapest Orthodox Jewish hospital.

Jan 15, 1942   152 Jewish women at the Brodnica labour camp near Stutthof are
               murdered by their overseers.

Jan 20, 1944   4200 Jews are shot at Auschwitz as massive death marches are set
               in motion.

Jan 27, 1945   The Soviet army liberates Auschwitz and finds over 800,000
               women’s coats and dresses, 350,000 men’s suits, and seven tons
               of human hair.

April 3, 1945  All 497 members of a slave-labour group at Bratislava in Slovakia
               are killed.

April 8, 1945  Jewish prisoners are sent on a death march from the Buchenwald
               concentration camp to Flossenburg. The non-Jewish inmates are
               left behind to be liberated by the Americans.

April 11, 1945 Buchenwald is liberated.

April 13, 1945 1016 prisoners are burned to death in a barn at Gardelegen in
               northeastern Germany or shot while trying to escape. They were
               being evacuated from the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp near
               Nordhausen but the transport had to be re-routed after the rail-
               road tracks had been bombed by American planes.

April 13, 1945 57,000 inmates from
Ravensbrück and Sachsenhausen are sent on a
               death march westward. Many are shot or die along the way.

April 15, 1945 British forces liberate the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
               and are horrified by the sights that greet them. They take many
               photographs which are circulated widely in the British media.

April 27, 1945 1000 death-marchers are killed by machinegun fire and grenades
               for attempting to flee from Rehmsdorf near Buchenwald. A further
               1200 are killed on the march.

April 29, 1945 Hitler retreats to his bunker in Berlin and prepares for the
               end, blaming the Jews and their “collaborators” for the war and
               Germany’s problems. He poisons himself a day later.

May 3, 1945    The greatest shipping disaster of all time (even worse than the
               sinking of the Titanic) occurred when the British Royal Airforce
               mistakenly bombed three ships (the passenger liner Cap Arcona,
               and the freighters Thielbek and Athens) in Lübeck Bay and killed
               some 7500 concentration camp prisoners who had been herded on to
               the ships with the possible intention of then sinking them, the
               idea being to not let any prisoners fall into allied hands. The
               prisoners came from Neuengamme near Hamburg and Stutthof near
               Danzig as well as from various other death marches. Nearly all
               8000 men on the Thielbek died when the ship sank immediately
               after the bombing; of the 7500 prisoners on board the Cap Arcona
               only about 400 survived.

May 8, 1945    Victory in Europe day. Germany surrenders unconditionally in
               Reims (France) on 7th May and finalises the surrender on 8th May
               in Karlshorst, Berlin (in the later Soviet sector of Berlin).

May 9, 1945    The Soviet army liberates Theresienstadt (Terezin).